Linux Sites

Home page > This LINKS to (general) LINUX SITES page

! NOTE !
Like most 'LINKS' pages on the web, there will, no doubt,
be more and more dead links on this page over time.
It may be years at a time before I return to this page to
remove dead links and replace some links with better links.
In the meantime, try 'WEB SEARCH' links provided on this page.

Table of Contents:

(links to sections of this page, below)

  1. Linux NEWS Sites

  2. Linux (and PC Unix) OS DISTRIBUTIONS = 'DISTRO' Sites

  3. Linux ORGANIZATION Sites
    (such as .org and .net)

  4. Linux USER GROUP (LUG) Sites

  5. Linux TUTORIAL Sites

  6. Linux FORUM Sites

  7. Linux MAGAZINE Sites


  9. Linux HARDWARE Sites
    (for Linux PCs and related hardware)




  13. Linux 3D GRAPHICS INFO Sites

  14. 'WEB DIRECTORY' pages on Linux

Note1 :
Some other 'LINKS' pages on this site provide links to Linux-Software and Linux-Conferences web pages.

Note2 :
You can use the 'Find' option of your browser to find keywords on this page,
such as 'news' or 'links' or 'graphics' or 'forum'.

End of Table of Contents.

Start of contents.

Linux NEWS sites

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  • AllTop - Linux News - at
    (A list of current, 'top' Linux news items at about 12 other sites, on main page. ONE-LINER headlines grouped by site --- such as,, etc. Headlines change pretty much daily. Also see the 'Tech' link at the top of the page.)

  • Linux News Feeds site - at
    ("newsfeed aggregating breaking Linux and Open Source headlines from more than 20 of the Web's most prestigious web sites --- including CNET, TechWeb, Wired, The Register, Slashdot, CRN, and Linux Today. Updates every 5 minutes.")

  • - News - at
    (Latest 2 days of news headlines shown down the main page --- NOT a compact list --- about 5 to 10 lines extracted from each news story --- about 10 items per day. See a list of categories at the bottom of the page. Examples: ARM, Debian, GNOME, HP, Intel, KDE, Mint, Mozilla, Multimedia,, RedHad, Ubuntu, Xfce)

  • Phoronix - News - at
    (Latest several days of news headlines shown down the main page --- NOT a compact list. Shows about 2 to 8 lines extracted from each story. About 1 to 10 items per day. A MIXTURE of Linux and computer technology news headlines. CPU and device and benchmarks oriented. See Categories list at top of page for topics such as Computers, Graphics Cards, Memory, Motherboards, Processors, etc. See Popular Phoronix News on right side of page.)

  • Distrowatch news - at
    (Scroll down through announcements of recent distro releases or use Search at top of page. See 'Page Hit Rankings' on mid-right-hand side. See 'Distrowatch Weekly' news items, within the page or via link at top of page.)

  • Linux Weekly News - at
    (A rather annoying 2-column format on the main page. NOT a compact list of news headlines. About 2 to 10 lines extracted from each story.)

  • Linux Mint News via its blog - at
    (Postings on Linux Mint releases and on projects in-process. If it is slow to respond, try

  • Arstechnica - 'Technology Lab' - at
    (Latest few weeks or so of news headlines shown down the main page --- NOT a compact list --- about 1 line extracted from each news story --- about 2 to 6 items per day. See Menu at top of page for more options.)

  • TuxMachines News - at
    (Quite a few news items per day. NOT a very compact headlines listing. Many lines extracted from each news item. See sides and bottom of the page for links to news items at other sites.)

  • Linux Today news - at
    (Annoying popup ads! About 5 days of news items down page, with about one line of summary with each link. Scroll to bottom of page, thru news items --- OR choose a category from the top of the page, such as 'Developer' or 'High Performance' or 'Infrastructure' or 'Security' or 'Storage'.)

  • Linux Magazine news - at
    (A line of text is shown with each news item, down the page.)

  • 9to5Linux - at
    (A line of text is shown for each news item, down the page.)

  • Cloud7 news - at
    (A couple of lines of text are shown for each news item, down the page.)

  • Ubuntu Fridge - at
    (News items shown in weekly newsletters, down the page.)

  • OMG! Ubuntu! - at
    (A line of text is shown for each news item, down the page.)

  • Ubuntu Press Centre - at
    (A line of text is shown for each news item, down the page.)

  • Planet Ubuntu - at
    (News from and about Ubuntu developers. Aggregated blogs.)

  • Ubuntu Handbook news - at
    (Paragraphs of text is shown for each news item, down the page.)

  • Ubuntu MATE blog - at
    (Links to Ubuntu-MATE release notes are presented, down the page.)

  • Reddit - Linux News - at
    (A compact list of lots of 'hot' Linux news headlines. You can switch from 'hot' to 'new' or 'top' via tabs at the top of the page. The quality of Reddit, and, in particular, the Reddit Linux page went downhill in the 2014-2015 time frame. There may be lots of strange Reddit-processing that is not experienced on most other 'normal' web sites.)

  • News at Linux Slashdot - at
    (About one news item every 2 days. About 3 weeks of recent news on the main page. NOT a compact listing of headlines. Many lines extracted from each story. Missing a lot of Linux news. See other links on page, such as 'Stories', 'Technology', 'Science', ...)

  • News - at
    (Scroll down thru news items --- mostly 'how-to' items. There are Linux How-To's and tutorials and videos and Linux man pages at this site.)

  • Gnome - News - at
    (Rather detailed postings of Gnome news items --- releases, fixes, etc. Probably of interest mostly to Gnome developers.)

  • OS News - at
    (OS news --- on MS Windows, Android, and other operating systems, not just Linux. NOT a compact listing of OS news headlines --- about 10 lines extracted from each news story. About one or two items per day. There is a 'Topics' menu from which you can choose 'Linux'.)

  • Computerworld Australia - at
    (General computing news from Australia. First page may be somewhat slow to load, if you are not in that part of the world. Try the 'Menu' at the top of the page, for more options.)

  • TuxRadar News - at
    (Shows quick summaries of Linux Format magazine issues.)

  • UnixMen - News - at
    (Annoying popups! Lots of tutorials at this site. Even the news items are often tutorials.)


Linux (and PC Unix) OS DISTRIBUTIONS - 'DISTRO' sites

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  • Linux article - Wikipedia - at wiki/ Linux
    (First, a description of Linux at the Wikipedia "open encyclopedia". See the 'Linux Distributions' link at the bottom of the page.)

  • Distro Watch - at
    (A current overview of Linux distros. Also see the Newsletter links and the Recommended links.)

  • Ubuntu MATE Guide - at
    ( Ubuntu MATE is my preferred Linux distro --- ever since updating FROM Ubuntu 9.10, 2009oct, Karmic Koala TO Ubuntu MATE 18.14 LTS circa 2019.)

  • Linux Mint - at
    (An Ubuntu-based 'distro' with Cinnamon, MATE, KDE, and Xfce 'desktop' releases. Linux Mint also offers a non-Ubuntu, Debian-based release called LMDE = Linux Mint Debian Edition)

    (Circa 2017, I was considering a switch from Ubuntu 9.10, the 2009 October version, to LinuxMint-MATE or LMDE-MATE --- OR, if they do not satisfy, I was considering a switch to Ubuntu-MATE --- OR, if that does not satisfy, I would consider a switch to Debian and look for user-friendly packages to install for wireless Internet connection and other applications.)

  • Debian - at
    (The 'distro' on which Ubuntu and Linux Mint are based. See comments on Linux Mint, above.)

  • Ubuntu Linux - at
    (Offers 'distros' named Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, and Edubuntu.)

    (Ubuntu was my recommended Linux distro, as of 2009 and 2010. I have described installing it on several computers on this Ubuntu Installs page --- where I also provide a list of recommended applications for web browsing, email, image processing, etc. I explain there why I was pleased with Ubunutu 9.10 --- the 2009 October release, 'Karmic Koala'. When Ubuntu switched to its 'Unity' desktop environment, from Gnome2, they killed a lot of the productivity-enhancing features of Gnome2. I had to look elsewhere for my next distro. Fortunately, the Ubuntu-MATE 'flavor' appeared several years later.)

  • Mandriva Linux - at wiki/ Mandriva
    (revived as Mageia and OpenMandriva and ROSA Linux)

    (The freeware LiveCD version of Mandriva, such as "Mandriva Spring 2007", WAS my recommended "donation-ware" distro in 2007. See the Mepis and Xandros distros below for my previous preferences. See Ubuntu, above, for my 2009-2010 preference.

    In summer 2007 I built a PC with 2 disk drives. I was going to install Mepis Linux on it, but I found the GUI 'Parted' [Partition Editor] utility used by Mepis would not recognize the second of my two disk drives.

    I tried Mandriva and found that the 'DiskDrak' utility that Mandriva uses for partitioning and formatting disk drives is much better than the utility used by Mepis. That utility recognized both my disk drives and was quite user-friendly in the process of specifying directory 'mount points' for the partitions.

    In early 2007, I was wondering why the PClinuxOS distro was so popular on the site. When I found out that it is based on Mandriva and uses the same disk partitioning utility, I realized at least one probable reason why PClinuxOS is becoming so popular.

    If the Mandriva distributions were to all become "commercial-ware" with no "donation-ware" versions available, like Xandros did, then I would probably have switched to PClinuxOS from Mandriva. And if that were not suitable, I would probably have tried CentOS, a spin-off of the Fedora Linux distro, which is based on Red Hat Linux. Red Hat has very sophisticated disk partitioning utilities which can handle "logical volumes" as well as multiple disk drives. BUT, as of 2009, my preference became Ubuntu.)

  • MEPIS Linux - at wiki/ MEPIS

    (Before mid-2007, Mepis WAS my recommended "donation-ware" distro --- after not-for-free Xandros Linux, below. Xandros is easier to install for beginners and for quick temporary installs.

    The Mepis distro was the "next best" in hardware recognition, i.e. ease of installation, in my experience --- if you don't have more than one disk drive. AND Mepis has a nice choice of packages with very little "getting" required after installation. You could try Mepis out before install via a "Live CD". The Mepis motto is "Easy to try, easy to install, easy to use." However, as of 2009, my recommended distro became Ubuntu. See above.)

  • Xandros Linux - at wiki/ Xandros

    (I highly recommendED, in 2006, the Xandros distro as far as hardware recognition --- but NOT for choice of pre-installed packages. Xandros has no free lite or demo version after Xandros discontinued its OCE [Open Circulation Edition] 3.x, circa 2006.

    Xandros had a "4-click express install", with automatic disk partitioning for dual-boot install. Very good automatic hardware recognition and configuration --- network cards, sound cards, even printers.

    Unfortunately, no "LiveCD" for Xandros 4.x --- like the free OCE = Open Circulation Editon 3.x, that was available in 2005-2006. I think Xandros is making a big mistake, no longer offering a LiveCD version. I emailed them on this. No reply. As of 2009, my preferred distro became Ubuntu.)

    Some BSD distros :

  • Free BSD Unix for PCs - at

  • Net BSD Unix for PCs - at

  • Open BSD Unix for PCs - at

    Some other Linux distros :

  • Knoppix Linux - at knoppix/ index-en.html
    ( Knoppix is designed to be used as a Live CD or Live USG flash drive. Sometimes used to recover files from hard drives with inaccessible operating systems.)

  • Open Suse - at
    (the "open development" project based on the Novell Suse commercial product)

  • Novell Inc. - at wiki/ Novell
    (bought Suse Linux circa 2005 ; Suse later spun Novell off)

  • PCLinuxOS - at
    ( PCLinuxOS - Wikipedia uses the KDE desktop)

  • Red Hat Linux - at
    ( Red Hat - Wikipedia is an 'enterprise grade' Linux ; acquired by IBM circa 2019)

  • Fedora Linux - at
    ( Fedora Linux - Wikipedia is based on Red Hat Linux)

  • CentOS Linux - at
    ( CentOS - Wikipedia is based on Red Hat & Fedora ; discontinued circa 2021)

  • Arch Linux - at
    ( Arch Linux - Wikipedia is a 'rolling-release' Linux distro)

  • Slackware Linux - at
    ( Slackware - Wikipedia was one of the earliest Linux distros, circa 1993)

  • Turbolinux - at wiki/ Turbolinux
    (was a Japanese Linux distro that was started in Salt Lake City, Utah circa 1992 ; ceased operations in Dec 2019)

  • Kanotix Linux - at changelang-eng.html
    (not updated after 2019?)

    Some sources of Linux distro CDs-DVDs :

      (I usually download distro install files from the 'home' site
      but here are some snail-mail sources of DVD's and CD's.)

  • The Linux Shop - at
    ("Buy Linux on CD, DVD and USB Sticks" ; since 2004)

  • ALSO see the MAGAZINES section below. LinuxFormat, LinuxPro, and other magazines include or used to include DVDs containing Linux distros as well as individual applications and help files.


(such as .org and .net)

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  • Debian GNU/Linux - at

    (This organization is the source of utilities and applications on which many of the Linux distros are based. "Debian GNU/Linux ... comes with over 37,500 packages, precompiled software bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine."
    See their package lists via this Debian Packages page.
    And see older versions of the Debian packages at

  • MATE (MAH-tay) desktop - at

    (The MATE organization offers a fork of the Gnome 2.x desktop environment which was available until about 2010, when Gnome 3.x was released. Its main competition is Gnome 3.x, KDE, and Linux Mint's Cinnamon --- but there are quite a few other 'desktops' competing for users --- like Xfce and LXDE.)

  • Gnome desktop - at

    (The GNOME organization offers the Gnome 3.x desktop environment for Linux or UNIX computers. Its main competition in 2000 to 2010 was KDE, but there are quite a few other GUI 'desktops' --- like MATE, Linux Mint 'Cinammon', and Xfce.)

  • KDE desktop - at

    ("KDE is a powerful Free Software graphical desktop environment for Linux and Unix workstations. It combines ease of use, contemporary functionality, and outstanding graphical design with the technological superiority of the Unix operating system."
    "Leveraging the KDE application development framework, a great number of applications have been built for the K Desktop Environment. A selection of those applications is contained in the KDE base distribution. KDE is developing an office application suite based on KDE's KParts technology."

    Circa 2010, I found the KDE environment was more resource hungry than the Gnome2 environment. I preferred Gnome2.)

  • The Linux Kernel site - at

    ("This is the primary site for the Linux kernel source ....... deals with the Linux kernel, various distributions of the kernel and larger repositories of packages."

    See the FAQ for answers to some apparently common questions.)

  • The Linux Foundation - at
    ( The Linux Foundation <Wikipedia link> is a support organization for Linux)

  • Sourceforge - at

    (In 2014, Sourceforge <Wikipedia link> became the de facto repository for Open Source software. It contains more than 430,000 Open Source software projects.

    See the Linux SOFTWARE INFO / DOWNLOAD Sites section below, for some other Linux software archive sites that have deferred to Sourceforge.

    In 2015, the new owners of this site came under fire for adding bloatware and other more serious 'insertions' into software packages. It is best/safer to use the package manager of your favorite distro to download software.)

  • The Linux Documentation Project (TLDP) - at
    (Getting 'long in the tooth'? Lots of out-of-date HOW-TO's? Mostly before 2010?)

Linux USER GROUP (LUG) sites

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Linux TUTORIAL Sites

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  • Ubuntu MATE tutorials - at
    (Ubuntu MATE tutorials on various utilities & apps)

  • See the Linux Forums section, below, for up-to-date help. Use a keyword-search feature on these forums.

  • Since about 2010, a lot of Linux tutorial videos have become available on-line at sites like YouTube.

  • Linux-tutorials sites seem to come and go over short time frames. Rather than adding a lot of tutorial links that will 'go dead' relatively quickly, try ...

Linux FORUM Sites

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Linux (newsstand) MAGAZINE sites

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  • Linux Pro Magazine - at
    This is the American-Canadian version of Linux-Magazine. It included a DVD featuring a recent Linux distro.
    See Zack Brown's column on 'kernel news'. He makes it interesting.

  • Linux Journal - at
    A rather boring monthly ... from the U.S.
    More for system administrators of servers than for desktop/laptop users.
    It disappeared from newsstands sometime after 2014, but maintained an on-line presence that became oriented toward desktop users.

  • Linux Format - at
    I used to highly recommend this monthly magazine. However, after reading it for a couple of years, I found that the software reviews were useless to me, because the authors would typically either do a very superficial review (apparently more interested in putting words on the page than taking the time to really try out the software) --- OR, they would value different features of the software than I value and not even consider the features that I valued most, in coming up with their 1-to-10 star ratings. I found the 'News', 'Letters', and 'Answers' sections to be most useful, but that was not enough to make it worth the $16 newsstand price. The magazine included distros on DVD each month. Headquartered in the UK.

  • Tux Magazine - at
    Quit publishing in 2007, but 20 issues were still available as PDF files, in December 2014.

  • Some Linux and Unix magazines --- like 'Unix Review' --- eventually quit publishing a paper version but kept publishing a version on the internet. However, many of those web sites have gone dead --- or became Linux-news sites, which can be accessed in the Linux NEWS Sites section above.

    You can look for other Linux magazines (if any still exist in hard-copy form) by using searches like the following.

Linux has some nice desktops, but not this nice ...
unless you use an image like this for wallpaper.


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I have checked various sites offering pre-built PC's with Linux installed over the 2007 to 2014 time frame, but their prices have been high, if not outrageous.

I can sympathize with their needing to make a profit, and I understand that they cannot make a 'living profit' without asking those prices.

But they are competing with computer prices at outlets like BestBuy, Walmart, and Target --- as well as internet web sites like B-and-H Photo and TigerDirect. These outlets are selling computers from manufacturers like Acer, Asus, Dell, HP, Lenovo, etc. These companies order parts in such huge quantities that they can build computers at relatively low prices --- even with a non-free Microsoft operating system on these computers.

I built my own computer in 2007, and it cost me about $900 in parts, for a rather low-end desktop computer. I could have bought a computer with similar parts and capabilities for about $350 to $400 at a 'big box' store. I learned from that experience that I am better off buying a computer 'on sale' at a 'big box' store and then 'wiping' the Microsoft OS by installing a Linux 'distro' over the pre-installed Microsoft OS.

Assembling one's own computer from parts seems to make economic sense only for 'gamers' who seek to make a powerful rig that satisfies the person's own unique preferences.

Although I would never order a Linux computer from any of the following Linux-computer sites at the prices they ask, I provide these links for those (like me) who may want to check on these sites periodically.

  • AVA Direct - at
    (Linux & Windows desktops, laptops, servers, etc. - Ohio)

  • Linux Certified Inc. - at linux_laptops.html
    (Linux laptops, training, and services - Sunnyvale, CA)

  • Polywell Computers - at
    (Linux servers, desktops, etc. - San Francisco, CA)

  • Puget Systems - at alternate_os.php
    (Linux servers, desktops, etc. - Seattle area)

  • Wikipedia - OLPC - at wiki/ One_Laptop_per_Child
    OLPC = One Laptop Per Child - the "$100 laptop" project. Although the project shut down in 2014, it motivated the development of less expensive laptops to put in the hands of school children all over the world.

  • Linux Preloaded - at
    ("A curated list of linux laptop and desktop vendors")


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There are thousands of Linux software packages, which would make this web page huge. So a separate Linux Sofware web page is available on this site.

There have been Linux sites that either

  • list categories of software (and examples of software in those categories), such as ''

  • OR, sites that serve as archives of source code for software, such as '' and ''.

But many of these sites have gone dead in the 2005 to 2012 time frame --- probably because the software (including source code) --- as well as categorized lists of the software --- are generally available in 'package pages' at Linux 'distro' sites such as '', '' and ''.

But the old software lists may still provide some ideas of software to consider installing. And source code (although old) is still available from some of these archive sites. So here are some old 'semi-dead to dead' sites.

Software LISTS Sites :

Software ARCHIVE Sites :

  • Debian Software 'Snapshots' - at
    Has 'binary' and 'source' packages. Still active in 2022.
    You need to know the name of the software you are looking for.
    No categories or descriptions.

  • Sourceforge - at
    This site is the 'go to' site referenced by old sites '' & 'ibiblio'. BUT ...

    In 2013, SourceForge started 'monetizing' with 'adware'. GIMP removed its download. GIMP called SourceForge a once "useful and trustworthy place to develop and host FLOSS applications" that now faces "a problem with the ads they allow on their sites". Reference: Wikipedia - SourceForge Controversies says "bundles potentially unwanted programs".

    It seems SourceForge has blown its trust. I prefer '', above.

  • Freecode - at
    (Redirects to '' in 2022.)

    An archive site for software code. Formerly ''. In December 2014, a note at the very top of the web page said "Effective 2014-06-18 Freecode is no longer being updated (content may be stale)." The 'About' page said "Developers seeking hosting or ability to promote their Open Source software should consider SourceForge" []. A heck of a lot of source code was still available at in 2014 December.

  • ibiblio Linux - at software/ linux/

    A 2010 September notice on the main 'ibiblio' Linux page said:

    "In 1992, ibiblio began began accepting and redistributing open source software projects into its Linux software archive. These projects consisted mainly of tar or gzipped source code bundles, combined with descriptive metadata called a Linux Software Map. Since then, the ibiblio Linux Archive grew to 12 GB in size. Project hosting sites, such as '', and the development of Linux distribution package repositories extended the success of the Linux Archive.

    The Linux Archive is no longer accepting submissions. It currently represents a snapshot of open source software projects from the early 1990's until the mid-2000's. The archive contains over 5000 items and is available for download via BitTorrent --- from A bundle of the entire archive is available as a single torrent."


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Linux 3D GRAPHICS INFO sites

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'WEB DIRECTORY' pages on Linux info

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It seems that 'web directories' are dying out. Google and Yahoo closed theirs down around 2014. Then around 2017, the directory from which the Google and Yahoo web-directories were spawned --- the DMOZ "Open Directory Project" closed down.

It seems that it is just not feasible for a team of people to keep up with all the sites that are going dead and the new sites that appear.

About a year after the site closed down, it appears that a new web-directory site --- --- arose from the ashes of ''. It remains to be seen how long that web-directory lasts.

Following are a few links related to 'web directory' sites.

Bottom of this

To return to a previously visited web page location, click on the Back button of your web browser, a sufficient number of times.

OR, use the History-list option of your web browser.

OR ...

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Or you can scroll up, toward the top of this page.

Page history:

Page was created 2006 Mar 18.

. . . Various changes to 2015 Feb 24.

Page was changed 2015 May 28.
(Added 'WEB SEARCH' links. Did some minor reformatting.)

Page was changed 2015 Aug 26.
(Added some Linux NEWS links.)

Page was changed 2015 Sep 20.
(Moved a link from NEWS to TUTORIALS.)

Page was changed 2015 Nov 02.
(Added 3 Linux NEWS links. Added 3 SOFTWARE links.)

Page was changed 2015 Dec 01.
(Moved 2 Linux NEWS links.)

Page was changed 2017 Dec 15.
(Demoted one set of seemingly inactive Linux NEWS links.)

Page was changed 2018 Aug 13.
(Added css and javascript to try to handle text-size for smartphones, esp. in portrait orientation. Replaced dead '' 'web-directory' link with ''.)

Page was changed 2019 Jul 26.
(Specified image widths in percents to size the images according to width of the browser window.)

Page was changed 2021 Feb 12.
(Some minor-re-formatting.)

Page was changed 2022 Jun 30.
(Changed the external links so that they open in a separate window or tab - so that this page stays available.
Removed some dead links & added some links in the first 4 sections.)

Page was changed 2022 Jul 02.
(Removed some dead links & added some links to the remaining 10 sections.)