Calc1 
PG  Population Growth
(
Leeuwenhoek ca. 1679 ;
Malthus ca. 1798)

Cohen, I. Bernard,
'The Triumph of Numbers',
2005, New York: W. W. Norton, PGCp. 21
(See Leeuwenhoek's 1679 calculation of 13 billion
people for overpopulation  an amazingly believable
prediction given that, at 7 billion people around 2017,
the planet is exhibiting definite signs of stress.)

Malthus, T.R.,
'Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the
Future Improvement of Society',
1998, London: St. Paul's, PGCp. 18
Many versions are available, including at
Chapter 1  'Introduction'  Additional Bibliography

On Experiments (and their value):

Crease, R. P.,
'The Prism and the Pendulum: The Ten Most Beautiful
Experiments in Science',
2004, New York: Random House, PGCp. 16

Johnson, G.,
'The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments',
2009, London: Vintage, PGCp. 16

Shamos, M. H.,
'Great Experiments in Physics',
1959, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, PGCp. 16

On Equations (great ones):

Crease, R. P.,
'The Great Equations',
2008, New York: Norton, PGCp. 16

On Theory and Experiment
(how they complement each other):

Baggot, J. ,
'Farewell to Reality: How Modern Physics Has Betrayed
the Search for Scientific Truth',
2013, New York: Pegasus, PGCp. 16
Calc2 
PT  Pythagorean Triples

Britton, J. P., C. Proust and S. Shnider,
'Plimpton 322: A Review and a Different Perspective',
2011, Archive for the History of the Exact Sciences, 51966,
PGCp. 28, 31, 32

Robson, Eleanor,
"Mathematics Education in an Old Babylonian Scribal School",
in 'The Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics',
edited by Eleanor Robson and Jacqueline Stedall,
2009, Oxford: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 27

Robson, Eleanor,
"Neither Sherlock Holmes nor Babylon: A Reassessment of
Plimpton 322",
2001, Historia Mathematica 28, 167206, PGCp. 28

Robson, Eleanor,
"Tables and Tabular Formatting in Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria,
2500BCE50CE"
in 'The History of Mathematical Tables',
edited by M. CampbellKelly, M. Croaken, R. Flood, and E. Robson,
2003, Oxford: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 28

Robson, Eleanor,
"Words and Pictures: New Light on Plimpton 322",
2002, American Mathematical Monthly 108, 10520, PGCp. 28
Calc3 
AP  Archimedes approximates Pi

Berggren, L. J. Borwein, and P. Borwein,
'Pi: A Source Book',
1997, New York: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 39

Dijksterhuis, E. J.,
'Archimedes',
1987, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 38, 43, 56

Heath, Sir Thomas,
'A History of Greek Mathematics', Vol. 2,
1965, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, PGCp. 38

Stein, S.,
'Archimedes: What Did He Do besides Cry Eureka?',
1999, Mathematical Assoc. of America, Washington DC, PGCp. 38, 56
Chapter 2  'Ancient Mathematics'  Additional Bibliography

Numeric Tablets (NT):

Chabert, JeanLuc, ed.,
'A History of Algorithms',
1999, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 33

George, Andrew,
'The Epic of Gilgamesh',
1999, London: Penguin Books, PGCp. 26

Gill, A.,
'The Rise and Fall of Babylon',
2011, London: Quercus, PGCp. ?

Neugebauer, O.,
'The Exact Science in Antiquity',
1959, New York: Dover, PGCp. 27, 28, 32, 33

Robinson, A.,
'Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction',
2009, Oxford: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 26

Map Tablets (MT):

British Museum,
'Map of the World',
at
britishmuseum.org (accessed 2015 Jan 15), PGCp.26

Brotton, Jerry,
'A History of the World in Twelve Maps',
2013, London: Penguin, PGCp. 26

Chinese Mathematics (CM):

Joseph, G. G.,
'The Crest of the Peacock: NonEuropean Roots of Mathematics',
1992, London: Penguin, PGCp. 41

Martzloff, J.C.,
'A History of Chinese Mathematics',
1997, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 41, 64, 65

Yan, Li, and Du Shiran,
'Chinese Mathematics: A Concise History',
translated by N. Crossley and A. W.C. Lun,
1987, Oxford: Clarendon Press, PGCp. 41, 64, 65

Rhind Papyrus (RP):

Calinger, R.,
'A Contextual History of Mathematics',
1999, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, PGCp. 33

Gillings, R. J.,
'Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs',
1972, New York: Dover, PGCp. 33, 34

Robins, G., and C. Shute,
'The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus',
1987, London: British Museum Publications, PGCp. ?
Calc4 
LA  Liber Abaci (Fibonacci)

Devlin, K.,
'The Man of Numbers: Fibonacci's Arithmetic Revolution',
2011, London: Bloomsbury, PGCp. 44, 48

Gies, J., and F. Gies,
'Leonardo of Pisa and the New Mathematics of the Middle Ages',
1969, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, PGCp. 44

Sigler, L. E.,
'Fibonacci's Liber Abaci: A Translation into
Modern English of Leonardo Pisano's Book of Calculation',
2002, New York: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 45, 46
Calc5 
LT  Logarithm Tables (Napier, Briggs)

Bruce, I.,
"The Agony and the Ecstasy  The Development of Logarithms
by Henry Briggs",
2002, Mathematical Gazette 86, 21627, PGCp. 52, 53

Bruce, I.,
"Napier's Logarithms",
2000, American Journal of Physics, 14854, PGCp. 52

Calinger, R.,
'A Contextual History of Mathematics',
1999, Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall, PGCp. 51, 52, 53

Carslaw, H. S.,
"The Discovery of Logarithms by Napier",
1915, Mathematical Gazette 8, 7684, 11519, PGCp. 52

Goldstine, H. H.,
'A History of Numerical Analysis',
1977, New York: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 52, 53

Horsburgh, E. M.,
'Modern Instruments and Methods of Calculation: A Handbook of the
Napier Tercentenary Exhibition',
1915, London: G. Bell and Sons, PGCp. 54

Jagger, G.,
"The Making of Logarithm Tables"
in 'History of Mathematical Tables',
edited by M. CampbellKelly, M. Croaken, R. Flood, and E. Robson,
2003, Oxford: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 52, 53

Williams, M. R.,
'A History of Computing Technology',
1985, Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, PGCp. 54
(See Chapter 2.)
Calc6 
BP  Basel Problem (Euler)

Dunham, W.,
'Euler: The Master of Us All',
1999, Washington DC: Mathematical Assoc. of America, PGCp. 58

Euler, L.,
'Introduction to Analysis of the Infinite',
tranlated by J. D. Blanton,
1988, New York: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 58

Kline, M.,
"Euler and Infinite Series",
1983, Mathematics Magazine 56, 30714, PGCp. 58
Calc7 
PN  Prime Number theorem (Gauss)

Conway, J. H., and R. K. Guy,
'The Book of Numbers',
1996, New York: Copernicus SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 61

Goldstein, L. J.,
"A History of the Prime Number Theorem",
1973, American Mathematical Monthly 80, 599615, PGCp. 63

Lehmer, D. N.,
"On the History of the Problem of Separating a Number
into Its Prime Factors",
1918, Scientific Monthly 7, 22734, PGCp. 62

Tshinkel, Y.,
"About the Cover: On the Distribution of Primes 
Gauss' Tables",
2005, Bulletin of the American Math. Society 43, 8991, PGCp. 63

Wells, D.,
'Prime Numbers: The Most Mysterious Figures in Math',
2005, Hoboken NJ: John Wiley, PGCp. 61, 63, 64
Chapter 3  'Steps into Modern Mathematics' 
Additional Bibliography

Pascal's Triangle (PT) :

Edwards, A.,
'Pascal's Arithmetical Triangle',
1987, London: Charles Griffin, PGCp. 64

Martzloff, J.C.,
'A History of Chinese Mathematics',
1997, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 41, 64, 65

Yan, Li, and Du Shiran,
'Chinese Mathematics: A Concise History',
translated by N. Crossley and A. W.C. Lun,
1987, Oxford: Clarendon Press, PGCp. 41, 64, 65

Gaussian Elimination (GE) :

Martzloff, J.C.,
'A History of Chinese Mathematics',
1997, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 41, 64, 65

Yan, Li, and Du Shiran,
'Chinese Mathematics: A Concise History',
translated by N. Crossley and A. W.C. Lun,
1987, Oxford: Clarendon Press, PGCp. 41, 64, 65

Classification of Groups (CG) :

Sautoy, Marcus du,
'Symmetry: A Journey into the Patterns of Nature',
2008, New York: Harper Collins, PGCp. 65

Benford's Law (BN) :

Berger, A., and T. P. Hill,
"Benford's Law Strikes Back: No Simple Explanation
in Sight for Mathematical Gem",
2011, Mathematical Intelligencer 33, 8591, PGCp. 65

Hill, T. P.,
"The First Digit Phenomenon",
1998, American Scientist 86, 35863, PGCp. 65

UnReferenced (?) :

Chabert, JeanLuc, editor,
'A History of Algorithms',
1999, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. ?

Stillwell, J.,
'Mathematics and Its History',
1989, New York: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. ?
Calc8 
ME  Measure Earth (Eratosthenes)

Dutka, J.,
"Eratosthanes' Measurement of the Earth Reconsidered",
1993, Archive for the History of Exact Sciences 46, 5566, PGCp. 70

Nicastro, N.,
'Circumference: Eratosthanes and the Ancient Quest to
Measure the Globe',
2008, New York: St. Martin's, PGCp. 68, 70
Calc9 
AE  Age of Earth (Kelvin, others)

Badash, L.,
"The AgeoftheEarth Debate",
1989 August, Scientific American, 7883, PGCp. 71

England, P. C., P. Molnar and F. M. Richter,
"Kelvin, Perry and the Age of the Earth",
2007, American Scientist 95, 342349, PGCp. 76, 77

Perry, J.,
"On the Age of the Earth",
1895, Nature 51, 22427, 34142, 58285, PGCp. 76

Ruddock, I.,
"Lord Kelvin, Science and Religion",
2004 February, Physics World, 56, PGCp. 74

Smith, C., and M. Norton Wise,
'Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin',
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 73, 76, 77

Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin),
"On the Age of the Earth",
1895, Nature 51, 43840, PGCp. 76

Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin),
"On the Secular Cooling of the Earth",
1862, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 23,
15769, PGCp. 73

Weintraub, D. A.,
'How Old is the Universe?',
2011, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 72
Calc10 
IE  Inside Earth

Auer, M., and M. Prior,
"A New Era of Nuclear Test Verification",
2014 September, Physics Today, 3943, PGCp. 85

Bolt, B. A.,
'Earthquakes', 5th edition,
2004, New York: W. H. Freeman, PGCp. 78

Brush, S. G.,
"Discovery of the Earth's Core",
1980, American Journal of Physics 48, 70524, PGCp. 79

Buffet, B.,
"Earth's Enigmatic Inner Core",
2013 November, Physics Today 66, 3741, PGCp. 85

Bullen, K. E., and B. A. Bolt,
'An Introduction fo the Theory of Siesmology', 4th edition,
1985, Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 78

Herak, Marijan,
"Mohorovicic Discontinuity",
Andrija Mohorovicic's Memorial Rooms, at
gfz.hr, accessed 2014 Mar 12, PGCp. 83

Jarchow, C. M., and G. A. Thompson,
"The Nature of the Mohorovicic Discontinuity",
1989, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 17,
475506, PGCp. 83, 84

KolblEbert, M.,
"Inge Lehmann's Paper: 'P' (1936)",
2001, Classic Papers in the History of Geology 24, 26267, PGCp. 82

Lehmann, Inge,
"Seismology in the Days of Old",
1987, Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union 68,
3335, PGCp. 81, 82

Oldham, R. D.,
"The Constitution of the Interior of the Earth as
Revealed by Earthquakes",
1906, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 62,
45675, PGCp. 80

Oldham, R. D.,
On the Propagation of Earthquake Motion to Great Distances",
1900, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
of London, Series A, 194, 13574, PGCp. 80

Oldroyd, D. R.,
'Thinking about the Earth: A History of Ideas in Geology',
1996, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 78

Olson, P.,
"The Geodynamo's Unique Longevity",
2013 November, Physics Today 66, 3035, PGCp. 85

Physics Update,
"Iron's Structure at Earth's Core",
2010 December, Physics Today, 26, PGCp. 85

Rousseau, C.,
"How Inge Lehmann Discovered the Inner Core of the Earth",
2013, College Mathematics Journal 44, 399408, PGCp. 83

Umino, S., K. Nealson, and B. Wood,
"Drilling to Earth's Mantle",
2013 August, Physics Today 66, 3641, PGCp. 84
Calc11 
GM  Galileo Motion (falling bodies)

Galillei, Galileo,
'Two New Sciences',
translated by Stillman Drake,
1974, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, PGCp. 86
(Many versions of this book are available.)
Calc12 
Tides  Tide Predictions
Cartwright, David Edgar,
Tides: A Scientific History book,
1999, Cambridge University Press.
Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services
tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/harmonic.html web article
(accessed 2014 March 20)
Doodson, Arthur Thomas
The Development of Tidal Theory article
Journal of Navigation 6, pages 177183, 1953.
Parker, Bruce,
The Tide Predictions for DDay,
Physics Today 64, pages 3540, 2011 September
Phillips, Tony (Stony Brook),
Fourier Analysis of Ocean Tides at ams.org
(accessed 2014 March 20)
Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin),
The Tides, Evening Lecture to the British Association
at the Southhampton Meeting, 1882 August 25, Friday
Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin) and
Peter Guthrie Tait,
Principles of Mechanics and Dynamics
(formerly titled 'Treatise on Natural Philosophy'),
1962, Dover
(A republication of the last revised edition of 1912.)
Tide Predicting Machine, Wikipedia article,
accessed 2017 March 27
Chapter 4  'Our World' (Earth) 
Additional Bibliography

Environmental Modeling (EM) :

Wainwright, J. and M. Mulligan,
'Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity',
2013, Chichester UK: WileyBlackwell, PGCp. 97
Calc13 
P  Ptolemy (Solar System Model)

Chabert, JeanLuc, editor,
'A History of Algorithms',
1999, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 103, 104

Hanson, N. R.,
"The Mathematical Power of Epicycle Astronomy",
1960, Isis 51, 15058, PGCp. 107

Linton, C. M.,
'From Eudoxus to Einstein: A History of Mathematical Astronomy',
2004, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 104, 107, 108

Pederson, O.,
"Scientific Accounts of the Universe from Antiquity to Kepler",
1994, European Review 2, 12540, PGCp. 100

Ptolemy,
'Almagest',
translated and annotated by G. J. Toomer,
1984, London: Duckworth, PGCp. 100

Thurston, H.,
'Early Astronomy',
1996, New York: Springer, PGCp. 100

Toomer, G. J.,
"Ptolemy",
in 'Dictionary of Scientific Biography',
edited by C. C. Gillespie,
1975, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, PGCp. 100, 102

Van Brummelen, G.,
'The Mathematics of the Heavens and the Earth:
The Early History of Trigonometry',
2009, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 103, 104, 105
Calc14 
K  Kepler (Solar System Model)

Beer, A., and P. Beer, editors,
'Kepler, Four Hundred Years',
1975, Proceedings of Conferences Held in Honour of
Johannes Kepler, Oxford: Pargamon, PGCp. 110

Gingerich, O.,
"The Great Martian Catastrophe and How Kepler Fixed It",
2011 September, Physics Today 64, 5054, PGCp. 112

Gingerich, O.,
"Johannes Kepler",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the
Rise of Astrophysics Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 112

Gingerich, O.,
"Kepler",
in 'Dictionary of Scientific Biography',
edited by C. C. Gillespie,
1975, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, PGCp. 110

Koyre, A.,
'The Astronomical Revolution',
2009, London: Routledge, PGCp. 112

Linton, C. M.,
'From Eudoxus to Einstein: A History of Mathematical Astronomy',
2004, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 112

Pask, C.,
'Magnificent Principia: Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece',
2013, Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 115
(See Chapter 12.)

Thurston, H.,
'Early Astronomy',
1996, New York: Springer, PGCp. 112
Calc15 
MT  Moon Test (Newton)

Pask,C.,
'Magnificent Principia: Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece',
2013, Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 115, 117
Calc16 
NM  Newton Masses (planets)

Cohen, I. B.,
"Newton's Determination of the Masses and Densities of the Sun,
Jupiter, Saturn, and the Earth",
1998, Archive for the History of Exact Sciences 53, 8395, PGCp. 123

Pask,C.,
'Magnificent Principia: Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece',
2013, Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 123, 125
Calc17 
HC  Halley's Comet

Green, D. W. E.,
'The Mystery of Comets',
1986, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 124

Grier, D. A.,
'When Computers Were Human',
2005, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 127, 128

Ronan, C. A.,
"Edmond Halley"
in 'Dictionary of Scientific Biography',
edited by C. C. Gillespie,
1975, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, PGCp. 126

Ronan, C. A.,
'Edmond Halley: Genius in Eclipse',
1970, London: MacDonald, PGCp. 126

Waff, C. B.,
"Predicting the MidEighteenthCentury Return of Halley's Comet",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of
Astrophysics, Part B: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 127
Calc18 
PN  Planet Neptune (Leverrier)

Grosser, M.,
'The Discovery of Neptune',
1979, New York: Dover, PGCp. 130, 133(2), 136

Hanson, N. R.,
"Leverrier: The Zenith and Nadir of Newtonian Mechanics",
1962, Isis 53, 35978, PGCp. 130

Kent, D.,
"The Curious Aftermath of Neptune's Discovery",
2011 December, Physics Today 64, 4651, PGCp. 136

Linton, C. M.,
'From Eudoxus to Einstein: A History of Mathematical Astronomy',
2004, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 130(2), 137

Morando, B.,
"The Golden Age of Celestial Mechanics",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of
Astrophysics, Part B: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 130

Smith, R. W.,
"The Cambridge Network in Action: The Discovery of Neptune",
1989, Isis 80, 395422, PGCp. 130, 133

Sandage, T.,
'The Neptune File',
2000, London: Allen Lane Penguin, PGCp. ?
Calc19 
AU  Astronomical Unit (Halley, Venus transit)

Halley, E.,
"A New Method of Determining the Parallax of the Sun",
1716, Philosophical Transactions 29, 45456, PGCp. 138, 140
(Translation from the Latin is available at
eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov backed up at web.archive.org,
accessed 2017 Mar 27.)

Lomb, N.,
'Transit of Venus 1631 to the Present',
2011, Sydney: NewSouth, PGCp. 141

Pask,C.,
'Magnificent Principia: Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece',
2013, Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 146

Phillips, T.,
'The 2012 Transit of Venus',
at
science.nasa.gov/sciencenews/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 140(2)

Van Helden, A.,
"Measuring Solar Parallax: The Venus Transits of 1761 and 1769 and their
Nineteenth Century Sequels",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of
Astrophysics, Part B: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 136

Van Helden, A.,
'Measuring the Universe: Cosmic Dimensions from Aristarchus
to Halley',
1985, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, PGCp. 136, 137

Woolf, H.,
'The Transits of Venus: A Study of Eighteenth Century Science',
1959, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 143(2)
Calc20 
RO  Rotating Orbits (Newton, others)

Einstein, A.,
"The Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity",
in 'The Principle of Relativity',
1952, New York: Dover, PGCp. 146
(A translation by W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery of
Einstein's original
"Die Grundlage der allgemainen Relativitatstheorie",
1916, Annalen der Physik 49, 769.)

Fernie, J. D.,
"In Pursuit of Vulcan",
1994, American Scientist 82, 41215, PGCp. 145

Hanson, N. R.,
"Leverrier: The Zenith and Nadir of Newtonian Mechanics",
1962, Isis 53, 35978, PGCp. 145

Morando, B.,
"The Golden Age of Celestial Mechanics",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of
Astrophysics, Part B: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 145

Newton, I.,
Principia,
PGCp. 143

Pais, A.,
'Subtle is the Lord: The Science and Life of Albert Einstein',
1982, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 147

Park, D.,
'Classical Dynamics and Its Quantum Analogues',
1979, Berlin: SpringerVerlag, PGCp.145

Pask,C.,
'Magnificent Principia: Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece',
2013, Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 142, 143
Chapter 6 ('The Solar System: Into the Modern Era') 
Additional Bibliography

Moon Orbit (MO) :

Morando, B.,
"The Golden Age of Celestial Mechanics",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of
Astrophysics, Part B: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 147
(American astronomer George W. Hill, 18381913,
made advances in predicting the moon's orbit.)

Ceres Orbit (CO) :

Marsden, B. G.,
"Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Developments in the Theory and
Practice of Orbit Determination",
in 'The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2,
Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of
Astrophysics, Part B, The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries',
edited by R. Taton and C. Wilson,
1989, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 147
(Gauss used limited data to find the orbit of the asteroid Ceres.)
Calc21 
DS  Dark Sky

Harrison, E. R.,
'Cosmology: The Science of the Universe', 2nd edition,
2000, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 150

Harrison, E. R.,
'Darkness at Night: A Riddle of the Universe',
1987, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 150

Harrison, E. R.,
"The Dark NightSky Riddle: A Paradox that Resisted Solution",
1984, Science 226, 94145, PGCp. 150

Harrison, E. R.,
"The Dark Sky Paradox",
1977, American Journal of Physics 45, 11924, PGCp. 150

Harrison, E. R.,
"Kelvin on an Old Celebrated Hypothesis",
1986, Nature 322, 41718, PGCp. 150
Calc22 
EU  Expanding Universe (Hubble)

Coles, P.,
'Cosmology: A Very Short Introduction',
2001, Oxford: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 155, 179

Earman, J.,
"Lambda: The Constant that Refuses to Die",
2001, Archive for History of the Exact Sciences 55,
189220, PGCp. 160

Freedman, W. L., and B. F. Madore,
"The Hubble Constant",
2010, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 48,
673710, PGCp. 157

Harrison, E. R.,
'Cosmology: The Science of the Universe', 2nd edition,
2000, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 157

Hubble, E.,
"A Relation between the Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra
Galactic Nebulae"
1929, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15,
16873, PGCp. 155

Lambourne, R. J. A.,
'Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology',
2010, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 158

Livio, M.,
"Mystery of the Missing Text Solved",
2011, Nature 479, 17173, PGCp. 156

Roos, M.,
'Introduction to Cosmology', 3rd edition,
2003, Chichester UK: Wiley, PGCp. 158, 171

Way, M. and H. Nussbaumer,
"Lematire's Hubble Relationship",
2011 August, Physics Today, Letters, 8, PGCp. 156

Weinberg, S.,
'The First Three Minutes', 2nd edition,
1988, New York: Basic Books, PGCp. 155
Calc23 
HC  Hoyle Carbon

Burbidge, E. M., G. R. Burbidge, W. A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle,
"Synthesis of the Elements in Stars",
1957, Reviews of Modern Physics 29, 547650, PGCp. 163

Davies, Paul,
'The Goldilocks Enigma: Why is the Universe Just Right for Life?',
2008, Boston: HoughtonMifflin, PGCp. 166

Gardner, Martin,
"WAP, SAP, PAP, and FAP",
in 'The Night is Large: Collected Essays 19381995',
1996, New York: St. Martin's, PGCp. 166

Harrison, E. R.,
'Cosmology: The Science of the Universe', 2nd edition,
2000, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 166

Hoyle, Fred,
'Astronomy and Cosmology: A Modern Course',
1975, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, PGCp. 164

Hoyle, Fred,
'Home is Where the Wind Blows: Chapters from a
Cosmologist's Life',
1994, Mill Valley CA: University Science Books, PGCp. 165

Hoyle, Fred,
"On Nuclear Reactions Occurring in Very Hot Stars. The Synthesis of
Elements from Carbon to Nickel", Supplement 1,
1954, Astrophysics Journal 1, 12146, PGCp. 163

Kragh, H.,
"An Anthropic Myth: Fred Hoyle's Carbon12 Resonance Level",
2010, Archive for the History of Exact Sciences 64,
72151, PGCp. 166
Calc24 
DM  Dark Matter (Vera Rubin)

Burbidge, E. M., and G. R. Burbidge,
"The Masses of Galaxies",
Chapter 3 in 'Galaxies and the Universe',
edited by A. Sandage, M. Sandage, and J. Kristian,
1975, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 171

Caldwell, R., and M. Kamionkowski,
"Dark Matter and Dark Energy",
2009, Nature 458, 58789, PGCp. 171

Einasto, J., A. Kaasik,and E. Saar,
"Dynamic Evidence on the Massive Coronas of Galaxies",
1974, Nature 250, 30910, PGCp. 171

Irion, Robert,
"The Bright Face behind the Dark Side of Galaxies",
2002, Science 295, 96061, PGCp. 167

Ostriker, J. P., P. J. E. Peebles, and A. Yahil,
"The Size and Mass of Galaxies, and the Mass of the Universe",
1974, The Astrophysical Journal 193, L1L4, PGCp. 169

Rubin, Vera C., and W. Kent Ford,
"Rotation of the Andromeda Nebula from a Spectroscopic Survey
of Emission Regions",
1970, Astrophysical Journal 159, 37992, PGCp. 168

Rubin, Vera C.,
"Dark Matter in Spiral Galaxies",
1983, Scientific American, 96108, PGCp. 168

Rubin, Vera C.,
"The Rotation of Spiral Galaxies",
1983, Science 220, 133944, PGCp. 168

Rubin, Vera C.,
"Seeing Dark Matter in the Andromeda Galaxy",
2006 December, Physics Today, 89, PGCp. 168, 172

Oert, PGCp. 167, 171

Zwicky, PGCp. 167(2), 171
Calc25 
EG  Escaping Gravity (Newton)

Barger, V. D., and M. G. Olsson,
'Classical Mechanics: A Modern Perspective', 2nd edition,
1995, New York: McGraw Hill, PGCp. 175(2)

Hansen, J. R.,
'Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt and the Genesis
of the LunaryOrbit Rendezvous Concept',
1995, Washington DC: NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series 4,
PGCp. 175

Konopliv, A. S., et. al.,
"Improved Gravity Field of the Moon from Lunar Prospector",
1998, Science 281, 147680, PGCp. 175

Lee, T. E.,
'Bizarre Lunar Orbits',
NASA Science, 2006, at
science.nasa.gov/sciencenews/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. ?

Roos, M.,
'Introduction to Cosmology', 3rd edition,
2003, Chichester UK: Wiley, PGCp. 178

Roy, A. E., 'Orbital Motion', 4th edition,
2005, Bristol UK: Institue of Physics Publishing, PGCp. 175

Van Allen, J. A.,
"Gravitational Assist in Celestial Mechanics  A Tutorial",
2003, American Journal of Physics 71, 448 51, PGCp. 175

Dyson, PGCp. 178

Finkelstein, PGCp. 178

Houbolt, PGCp. 174

Oppenheimer, PGCp. 178

Schwarzchild, PGCp. 178

Snyder, PGCp. 178

Wheeler, PGCp. 179
Chapter 7 ('The Universe') 
Additional Bibliography
Calc26 
BF  Blood Flow (Harvey)

Gregory, Andrew,
'Harvey's Heart: The Discovery of Blood Circulation',
2001, Duxford UK: Icon Books, PGCp. 185

Harvey, W.,
'An Anatomical Disquisition on the Motion of the Heart and
Blood in Animals, A Translation of the 1628 Original',
1990, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis
in Animalibus,
Chicago, Great Books of the Western World,
Encyclopedia Britannica, PGCp. 183
Calc27 
HA  Halley Annuities

Ciecka, J. E.,
"Edmond Halley's Life Table and Its Uses",
2008, Journal of Legal Economics 15, 6574, PGCp. 189, 190

Cohen, I. Bernard,
'The Triumph of Numbers',
2005, New York: W. W. Norton, PGCp. 191

Hald, A.,
"The Early History of Life Insurance Mathematics",
Chapter 9 in
'A History of Probability and Statistics and Their
Application before 1750',
1990, New York: John Wiley, PGCp. 189, 190, 191

Halley, E.,
"An Estimate of the Degrees of the Mortality of Mankind, Drawn
from Curious Tables of the Births and Funerals at the
City of Breslaw; with an Attempt to Ascertain the Price
of Annuities upon Lives",
1693, Philosophical Transactions 17, 596610, PGCp. 187

Kopf, E. W.,
"The Early History of the Annuity",
a 42page PDF file at
casact.org,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 189

Lewin, C., and M. De Valois,
"History of Actuarial Tables",
in 'The History of Mathematical Tables',
edited by M. CampbellKelly, M. Croaken, R. Flood, and E. Robson,
2003, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 186, 189, 191

Newman, J. R.,
'The World of Mathematics',
1961, London: George Allen and Unwin, PGCp. 187
(Vol. 3 contains excerpts from the work of
Graunt and Halley on annuities.)
Calc28 
GV  Genetic Variability (HardyWeinberg)

Hardy, G. H.,
"A Mathematician's Apology',
1992 (a reprint?), Cambridge UK: Cambridge Canto Edition, PGCp. 196

Hardy, G. H.,
"Mendelian Proportions in a Mixed Population",
1908, Science 28, 4950, PGCp. 195

Okasha, S.,
"Population Genetics",
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, at
plato.stanford.edu,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 191
Calc29 
CT  Computerized Tomography

Cormack, A. M.,
"Early TwoDimensional Reconstruction and Recent Topics
Stemming From It",
1980, Science 209, 148286, PGCp. 201

Cormack, A. M.,
"Representation of a Function by Its Line Integrals, with
Some Radiological Applications",
1963, Journal of Applied Physics 34, 272227, PGCp. 201

Cormack, A. M.,
"Representation of a Function by Its Line Integrals, with
Some Radiological Applications II",
1964, Journal of Applied Physics 35, 290813, PGCp. 201

Epstein, C. L.,
'Introduction to the Mathematics of Medical Imaging',
2003, Upper Saddle river NJ: Pearson Education, PGCp. 200

Gordon, R., G. T. Herman, and S. A. Johnson,
"Image Reconstruction from Projections",
1975 October, Scientific American 233, 5668, PGCp. 197, 199

Kac, A. C.,
'Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging',
1988, New York: IEEE, PGCp. 199, 200

Shepp, L. A., and J. B. Kruskal,
"Computerized Tomography: The New Medical Xray Technology",
1978, American Mathematical Monthly 85, 42039, PGCp. 200

Webb, S.,
'From the Watching of Shadows: The Origins of Radiological
Tomography',
1990, Bristol UK: Adam Hilger, PGCp. 197, 202
Calc30 
SA  Scaling Animals

Banavar, J. R., et al.,
"A General Basis for QuarterPower Scaling in Animals",
2010, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107,
1581620 PGCp. 212

Brown, G. H., and G. B. West, editors,
'Scaling in Biology',
2000, Oxford: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 209, 212
(This book contains many papers given at a symposium on scaling.)

Burton, R. F.,
'Biology by Numbers: An Encouragement to Quantitative Thinking',
1998, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 205

Glazier, D. S.,
"The 3/4Power Law is Not Universal: Evolution of Isometric,
Ontogenetic Metabolic Scaling in Pelagic Animals",
2006, Bioscience 56, 32532, PGCp. 212

Glazier, D. S.,
"A Unifying Explanation for Diverse Metabolic Scaling in
Animals and Plants",
2010, Biological Reviews 85, 11138, PGCp. 212

Kleiber, Max,
'The Fire of Life',
1961, PGCp. 209, 210

Kleiber, Max,
"Body Size and Metabolism",
1932, PGCp. 208

Prange, H. D., J. F. Anderson, and H. Rahn,
"Scaling of Skeletal Mass to Body Mass in Birds and Mammals",
1979, American Naturalist 113, 10322, PGCp. 206

Rubner, Max,
papers up to 1924, PGCp. 209

Savage, V. M., et al.,
"The Predominance of QuarterPower Scaling in Biology",
2004, Functional Ecology 18, 25782, PGCp. 212

SchmidtNielsen K.,
'How Animals Work',
1972, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 205

SchmidtNielsen K.,
'Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important?',
1984, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 205, 206

Spence, A. J.,
"Scaling in Biology",
2009 Jan 27, Current Biology 19, R57R61, PGCp. 212

Vogel, S.,
'Life's Devices',
1988, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 205

West, J. B., and J. H. Brown,
"Life's Universal Scaling Laws",
2004 September, Physics Today, 3642, PGCp. 211

Whitfield, J.,
'In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature',
2006, Washington DC: Joseph Henry, PGCp. 208, 209
Chapter 8 ('About Us' animals) 
Additional Bibliography

Nervous System (NS)  signal transmission:

Hodgkins, Huxley, PGCp. 212

Pattern Formation (PF) :

Turing, PGCp. 212

DNA calculations:

No references cited by Pask.
Calc31 
LS  Light Speed (Roemer)

Boyer, C. B.,
'The Rainbow: From Myth to Mathematics',
1989, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 217

Brush, S. G.,
"Early Estimates of the Velocity of Light",
1941 March, Isis 33, 2440, PGCp. ?

Cohen, I. B.,
"Roemer and the First Determination of the Velocity
of Light (1676)",
1940 April, Isis 31, 32779, PGCp. 215
(This paper contains a facsimile of Roemer's original 1676 paper.)

Daukantas, P.,
"Ole Roemer and the Speed of Light",
2009 July, Optics and Photonic News, 4347, PGCp. 215

Roemer, O.,
"A Demonstration Showing the Motion of Light",
in 'Physical Thought from the Presocratics to the
Quantum Physicists: An Anthology',
edited by S. Sambursky,
1975, New York: Pica, PGCp. 215
Calc32 
RE  Rainbow Explanation (Descartes, Newton)

Boyer, C. B.,
'The Rainbow: From Myth to Mathematics',
1989, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 217

Casselman, B.,
'The Mathematics of Rainbows',
American Mathematical Society Monthly Essays, at
www.ams.org/samplings/featurecolum/fcarcrainbows,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 220

HeathStubbs, J., and P. Salman, editors,
'Poems of Science',
1984, Hammondsworth UK: Penguin, PGCp. 223

Newton, Isaac,
'Opticks',
1952, New York: Dover, PGCp. 218, 219, 221
(A reprint of the original 4th edition published in London in 1730.)

Nicholson, Marjorie Hope,
'Newton Demands the Muse',
1966, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 223

Nussenzveig, H. M.,
"The Theory of the Rainbow",
in 'Atmospheric Phenonmena: Readings from Scientific American',
1980, SanFrancisco: W. H. Freeman, PGCp. 220, 222

Williamson, S. J., and H. Z. Cummins,
'Light and Color in Nature and Art',
1983, New York: John Wiley, PGCp. 223?
Calc33 
DV  Diffraction and Vision (acuity)

Airy, G. B.,
"On the Diffraction of an ObjectGlass with Circular Aperture",
1835, Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 5,
28391, PGCp. 229

Cantor, G. N.,
'Optics After Newton',
1983, Manchester UK: Manchester U. Press, PGCp. 226

Denny, M., and A. McFadzean,
'Engineering Animals: How Life Works',
2011, Cambridge MA: Belknap, PGCp. 232
(See chapter 10 for photoreceptors and image sampling.)

Heavens, O. S., and R. W. Ditchburn,
'Insight into Optics',
1991, Chichester UK: John Wiley, PGCp. 226, 227, 230, 234

Huygens, C.,
'Treatise on Light',
1690, PGCp. 224, 225
(Available in many sources such as vol. 34 of
'Great Books of the Western World', Chapter 1,
1952, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.)

Lipson, S. G., and H. Lipson,
'Optical Physics',
1969, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 227, 234, 235

Newton, Isaac,
'Opticks',
1952, New York: Dover, PGCp. 224
(A reprint of the original 4th edition published in London in 1730.)

Robinson, A.,
'The Last Man Who Knew Everything',
2006, New York: Pi Press, PGCp. 226, 227
(This refers to Thomas Young, 17731829, who performed
a doubleslit optical interference experiment.)

Wandell, B. A.,
'Foundations of Vision',
1995, Sunderland MA: Sinauer, PGCp. 231
Calc34 
EM  ElectroMagnetism ... and light (Maxwell)

Feynman, R. P.,
'The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. 2, Mainly Electromagnetism
and Matter',
1971, Reading MA: AddisonWesley, PGCp. 236

Harman, P. M.,
'The Natural Philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell',
1998, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 232

Mahon, B.,
'The Man Who Changed Everything: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell',
2004, Chichester UK: Wiley, PGCp. 232

Maxwell, J.C.,
'A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism', 3rd edition,
1904, Oxford UK: Clarendon, PGCp. 232, 236

Segre, E.,
'From Falling Bodies to Radio Waves',
1984, New York: W. H. Freeman, PGCp. 232, 234, 235
(See chapter 4, "Electricity: From Thunder to Motors and Waves".)
Calc35 
PE  Photons Exist (Einstein)

Compton, A. H.,
Physical Review paper,
1923, PGCp. 243

Einstein, A.,
"On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion
of Light",
1905, Annalen der Physik 17, 13248, PGCp. 238
(This paper is reprinted in various books and in
Einstein's collected papers.)

Feynman, R. P.,
'QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter',
1985, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 249

Gamow, G.,
'Thirty Years That Shook Physics',
1966, New York: Dover, PGCp. 238, 241

Newton, Isaac,
'Opticks',
1952, New York: Dover, PGCp. 243
(A reprint of the original 4th edition published in London in 1730.)

Pais, A.,
'Subtle is the Lord: The Science and Life of Albert Einstein',
1982, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 238, 241, 246

Rigden, J. S.,
'Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness',
2005, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 238, 241

Roychaudhuri, C., and R. Roy, editors,
"The Nature of Light. What is a Photon?",
2003 October, 'Trends' supplement of 'Optics and Photonics News',
S1S35, PGCp. 249

Williams, B., editor,
'Compton Scattering',
1977, London: McGrawHill, PGCp. 241
(The paper "History" by R. H. Stuewer and M. J. Cooper,
gives a good introduction to Compton scattering.)
Calc36 
LB  Light Bends (Soldner, Einstein)

Brush, S. G.,
"Prediction and Theory Evaluation: The Case of Light Bending",
1989 December 01, Science 246, 112429, PGCp. 247

Eddington, A.,
'Space, Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Theory
of Relativity',
1959, New York: Harper, PGCp. 246
(A reprint of the original 1920 edition.)

Feynman, R. P.,
'QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter',
1985, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 249

Kennefick, D.,
"Testing Relativity from the 1919 Eclipse  A Question of Bias",
2009 March, Physics Today, 3742, PGCp. 246

Lambourne, R. J. A.,
'Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology',
2010, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 245(2), 247

Pais, A.,
'Subtle is the Lord: The Science and Life of Albert Einstein',
1982, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 247

Roychaudhuri, C., and R. Roy, editors,
"The Nature of Light. What is a Photon?",
2003 October, 'Trends' supplement of 'Optics and Photonics News',
S1S35, PGCp. 249

Soldner, Johann Georg van,
"On the Deflection of a Light Ray from Its Rectilinear Motion,
by the Attraction of a Celestial Body at Which It
Nearly Passes By",
1804, Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch, 16172, PGCp. 245
(Translations are readily available. For example, see S. L. Jaki in
Foundations of Physics 8, 1978, 92750.)

Weinberg, S.,
'Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the
Theory of Relativity',
1972, New York: John Wiley, PGCp. 245(2), 247

Will, C. M.,
'Was Einstein Right? Putting General Relativity to the Test',
1993, New York: Basic Books, PGCp. 244, 246

Will, C. M.,
"Henry Cavendish, Johann von Soldner, and the Deflection of Light",
1988 May, American Journal of Physics 56, 41315, PGCp. 244, 245
Calc37 
AE  Atoms Exist (Einstein  Brownian Motion)

Bernstein, J.,
"Einstein and the Existence of Atoms",
2006 October, American Journal of Physics 74, 86372, PGCp. 254

Brush, S. G.,
'Kinetic Theory, Vol 1, The Nature of Gases and of Heat',
1965, Oxford UK: Pergamon Press, PGCp. 253

Einstein, A.,
'The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein',
translated by Anna Beck,
1989, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 253
(Vol. 2 contains the relevant Brownian motion papers.)

Einstein, A.,
thesis, 1905 paper, 1906 paper, PGCp. 254
(Summarized in Pais?)

Feynman, R. P.,
'The Feynman Lectures on Physics',
1971, Reading MA: AddisonWesley, PGCp. 251, 254

Gamow, George,
'Thirty Years That Shook Physics',
1966, New York: Dover, PGCp. 253

Holton, G., and S. G. Brush,
'Introduction to Concepts and Theories in Physical Science',
2nd edition,
1973, Reading MA: AddisonWesley, PGCp. 253

Lucretius,
'De Rerum Natura',
written around 50 BCE,
translated as 'The Poem on Nature', by C. H. Sisson,
1975, Manchester UK: Carcanet, PGCp. 251

Newburgh, R., J. Peidle, and W. Ruekner,
"Einstein, Perrin,, and the Reality of Atoms: 1905 Revisited",
2006 June, American Journal of Physics 74, 47881, PGCp. 254, 257

Pais, A.,
"Introducing Atoms and Their Nuclei",
in 'Twentieth Century Physics', Vol. 1,
edited by L. M. Brown, A. Pais, and Sir Brian Pippard,
1995, Bristol UK: Institute of Physics Publishing, PGCp. 253, 254

Perrin, M. Jean,
'Brownian Movement and Molecular Reality',
1910, London: Taylor and Francis, PGCp. 257
(This is a translation by F. Soddy of Perrin's article in
'Annales de Chimie et de Physique', 8th series, 1909 September.)

Rechenberg, H.,
"Quanta and Quantum Mechanics",
in 'Twentieth Century Physics', Vol. 1,
edited by L. M. Brown, A. Pais, and Sir Brian Pippard,
1995, Bristol UK: Institute of Physics Publishing, PGCp. 253

Rigden, J. S.,
'Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness',
2005, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 254
(See the 'Seeing Atoms' chapter.)
Calc38 
SL  Spectral Lines (Balmer)

Balmer, J. J.,
"Notiz uber die Spectrallinien des Wasserstoffs",
1885, Annalen der Physik und Chemie 25, 80
translated as "The Hydrogen Spectral Series",
in 'A Source Book in Physics', edited by W. F. Magie,
1963, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 260

Kirchoff, G., and R. Bunsen,
"Chemische Analyse durch Spektralbeobachtungen",
'Ostwalds Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaften', no. 72, 1860
translated as "Chemical Analysis by Observation of the Spectrum"
in 'Physical Thought from the Presocratics to the
Quantum Physicists: An Anthology", edited by S. Sambursky,
1975, New York: Pica, PGCp. 258
Calc39 
AM  Atom Mechanics (Bohr, et al)

De Broglie, Louis,
"The Wave Nature of the Electron",
1929 Nobel Prize acceptance speech,
reprinted in 'Physical Thought from the Presocratics to
the Quantum Physicists: An Anthology", edited by S. Sambursky,
1975, New York: Pica, PGCp. 265

Clark, C. W., and J. Reader,
"The Optical Discovery of Deuterium",
2012 May, 'Optics and Photonics News 23, 3641, PGCp. 268

Bohr, 1913 paper, PGCp. 263
("easy to follow"; reproduced in Ter Haar's book, below.)

Fayer, M. D.,
'Absolutely Small: How Quantum Theory Explains Our Everyday World',
2010, New York: AMACOM, PGCp. 267

Ter Haar, D.,
'The Old Quantum Theory',
1967, Oxford UK: Pergamon, PGCp. 262, 263
(an excellent introduction to the dawn of quantum mechanics;
includes the seminal original papers by Planck, Einstein,
Rutherford, Bohr, and others)

Wallace, P. R.,
'Paradox Lost: Images of the Quantum',
1996, New York: Springer, PGCp. 268
(One of Pask's 'favorite' books on quantum physics
and the wave function.)
Calc40 
NM  Neutron Mass (Chadwick)

Chadwick, J.,
1935 Nobel Prize in Physics Award Address,
reprinted in 'The World of Physics, Vol. 2',
edited by F. H. Weaver,
1987, New York: Simon and Schuster, PGCp. 269

Chadwick, J.,
"Possible Existence of a Neutron",
1932, Letter to the Editor in 'Nature' 129, 312, PGCp. 269, 271

Pask, C.,
'Math for the Frightened',
2011, Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 270
(See chapter 13.)
Calc41 
EMM  Electron Magnetic Moment

Dirac, P. A. M.,
1933 Nobel Prize in Physics Award Address,
in 'The World of Physics, Vol. 2', edited by J. H. Weaver,
1987, New York: Simon and Schuster, PGCp. 275

Dirac, P. A. M.,
'The Principles of Quantum Mechanics', 4th edition,
1958, Oxford UK: Clarendon, PGCp. 275

Farmelo, G.,
'The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac,
Mystic of the Atom',
2009, New York: Basic Books, PGCp. 274

Feynman, R. P.,
'QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter',
1985, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 276, 278

Feynman, R. P.,
"SpaceTime Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics",
1949, Physical Review 76, 76989, PGCp. 277

Gabrielse, G.,
"The Standard Model's Greatest Triumph",
2013 Dec, Physics Today, 6465, PGCp. 279

Weisskoph, V. F.,
"Growing Up with Field Theory: The Development of Quantum
Electrodynamics",
in 'The Birth of Particle Physics',
edited by L. M. Brown and L. Hoddleson,
2010, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 276
Calc42 
NE  Neutrino Exists

Brown, L.,
"The Idea of the Neutrino",
1978 September, Physics Today, 2328, PGCp. 281, 282

Dunlap, R. A.,
'The Physics of Nuclei and Particles',
2004, Toronto: Thomson Brooks/Cole, PGCp. 281(2)

Lee and Wang, PGCp. 287

McManus, PGCp. 287 ("entertaining")

Pais, A.,
"Introducing Atoms and Their Nuclei",
in 'Twentieth Century Physics', Vol. 1,
edited by L. M. Brown, A. Pais, and Sir Brian Pippard,
1995, Bristol UK: Institute of Physics Publishing, PGCp. 281, 282, 285

Sutton, C.,
'Spaceship Neutrino',
1992, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 281

Wu, PGCp. 287
Calc43 
TD  Time Dilation (Einstein)

Ashby, N.,
"Relativity and the Global Positioning System",
2002 May, Physics Today, 4147, PGCp. 291

Greenberg, A. J., et al.,
"ChargedPion Lifetime and a Limit on a Fundamental Length",
1969, Physical Review Letters 23, 126770, PGCp. 290

Lambourne, R. J. A.,
'Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology',
2010, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 288(2)

Mermin, D.,
'It's About Time: Understanding Einstein's Relativity',
2005, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 290

Reinhardt, S., et al.,
"Test of Relativistic Time Dilation with Fast Optical
Atomic Clocks at Different Velocities",
2007, Nature Physics 3, 86164, PGCp. 290

Rossi, B.,
"The Decay of Mesotrons, 19391943: Experimental
Particle Physics in the Age of Innocence",
in 'The Birth of Particle Physics',
edited by L. M. Brown and L. Hoddleson,
2010, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 290

Rossi, B., N. Hilberry, and J. Barton Hoag,
"The Variation of the Hard Component of Cosmic Rays
with Height and the Disintegration of Mesotrons",
1940, Physical Review 57, 46168, PGCp. 290

Sartoff, G., et al.,
"Improved Test of Time Dilation in Special Relativity",
2003, Physical Review Letters 91, 1904031 to 1904034, PGCp. 290

Wikipedia article
Time Dilation,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 290
Calc44 
QM  Quarks and Masses (GellMann et al)

Dunlap, R. A.,
'The Physics of Nuclei and Particles',
2004, Toronto: Thomson Brooks/Cole, PGCp. 292

Durr, S., et al.,
"AbInitio Determination of Light Hadron Masses",
2008 Nov 21, Science 322, no. 5905, 122427, PGCp. 294

Fayer, M. D.,
'Absolutely Small: How Quantum Theory Explains Our Everyday World',
2010, New York: AMACOM, PGCp. 291

Olsen, S. L.,
"Exotic Particles with Four or More Quarks",
2014 September, Physics Today, 5657, PGCp. 294

Wilczek, F.,
'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the
Unification of Forces',
2008, New York: Basic Books, PGCp. 294
Calc45 
SF  Sun Fusion

Atkinson, R., and F. Houtermans,
"Aufbaumoelichkeit in Sternen",
1929, Zeitschrift fur Physik 54, 65665, PGCp. 300

Bahcall, J. N.,
"Solving the Mystery of the Missing Neutrinos",
at
nobelprize.org/ nobel_prizes/ themes/ physics/ bahcall/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 304

Bethe, H. A.,
"Energy Production in Stars",
1939, Physical Review 55, 43456, PGCp. 301

Cockcroft, J., and E. Walton,
"Disintegration of Lithium by Swift Protons",
1932, Nature 129, PGCp. 297

Cockcroft, J., and E. Walton,
"Experiments with High Velocity Positive Ions II  The
Disintegration of Elements by High Velocity Protons",
1932, Proceedings of the Royal Society A 227, 22936, PGCp. 297

Dunlap, R. A.,
'The Physics of Nuclei and Particles',
2004, Toronto: Thomson Brooks/Cole, PGCp. 295, 303(2)

Eddington, A. S.,
'The Internal Constitution of Stars',
1959, New York: Dover, PGCp. 299
(A reprint of the 1926 original. The relevant part is
also reprinted in the book by Kilmister, noted below.)

Halzen, F., and S. R. Klein,
"Astronomy and Astrophysics with Neutrinos",
2008 May, Physics Today, 2935, PGCp. 304

Kelvin, Lord,
"On the Age of the Sun's Heat",
1862, Macmillan's Magazine 5, 38893, PGCp. 299

Kilmister, C. W.,
'Men of Physics: Sir Arthur Eddington',
1966, Oxford UK: Pergamon Press, PGCp. 299

King, A.,
'Stars: A Very Short Introduction',
2012, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 298, 302

Lang, K. R., and O. Gingerich, editors,
'A Sourcebook in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 19001975',
1975, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 303

McCracken, G., and P. Stott,
"Fusion: The Energy of the Universe",
2005, Amsterdam: Elsevier, PGCp. 303(2)

National Research Council, Committee on Nuclear Physics,
'Nuclear Physics: The Core of Matter, the Fuel of Stars',
1999, Washington DC: National Academy Press, PGCp. 295
Calc46 
AB  Atomic Bomb

Cockcroft, J., and E. Walton,
"Disintegration of Lithium by Swift Protons",
1932, Nature 129, PGCp. 297

Cockcroft, J., and E. Walton,
"Experiments with High Velocity Positive Ions II  The
Disintegration of Elements by High Velocity Protons",
1932, Proceedings of the Royal Society A 227, 22936, PGCp. 297

Dunlap, R. A.,
'The Physics of Nuclei and Particles',
2004, Toronto: Thomson Brooks/Cole, PGCp. 295, 306

Frank, Sir Charles,
'Operation Epsilon: The Farm Hall Transcripts',
1993, Berkley CA: U. of California Press, PGCp. 313

Graetzer, H. G., and D. L. Anderson,
'The Discovery of Nuclear Fission: A Documentary History',
1971, New York: Van Nostrand, PGCp. 304, 306
("A wonderful collection of original papers and
commentary on them."  Pask)

Logan, J.,
"The Critical Mass",
1996 MayJune, American Scientist 84, 26377, PGCp. 312, 313

Meitner and Frisch, PGCp. 304

National Research Council, Committee on Nuclear Physics,
'Nuclear Physics: The Core of Matter, the Fuel of Stars',
1999, Washington DC: National Academy Press, PGCp. 295

Rhodes, R.,
'The Making of the Atomic Bomb',
1986, New York: Simon and Schuster, PGCp. 306

Rose, P. L.,
'Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project:
A Study in German Culture',
1998, Berkeley CA: U. of California Press, PGCp. 312, 313

Serber, Robert,
'The Los Alamos Primer',
1992, Berkeley CA: U. of California Press, PGCp. 307
Calc47 
VS  Vibrating Strings
(D. Bernoulli, Fourier, et al)

D. Bernoulli, d'Alembert, Euler, PGCp. 317

D. Bernoulli, LaGrange, Euler, PGCp. 318

Cannon, J. T., and S. Dostrovsky,
'The Evolution of Dynamics: Vibration Theory from 1687 to 1742',
1981, New York: SpringerVerlag, PGCp. 316

Coulson, C. A., and A. Jeffrey,
'Waves', 2nd edition,
1977, London: Longman, PGCp. 316, 318

Dirac, PGCp. 323

Feynman, R. P.,
'The Feynman Lectures on Physics',
1971, Reading MA: AddisonWesley, PGCp. 322
(See chapters 25, 49, and 50 in volume 1.)

Fourier,
'Analytical Theory of Heat',
PGCp. 321

Kline, M.,
'Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times',
1972, New York: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 316, 318

Magie, W. F., editor,
'A Source Book in Physics',
1963, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 316

Mersenne, Taylor, PGCp. 316

Prestini, E.,
'The Evolution of Applied Harmonic Analysis',
2004, Boston: Birkhauser, PGCp. 322

Struik, D. J., editor,
'A Source Book in Mathematics 12001800',
1969, Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press, PGCp. 316

Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin), and P. G. Tait,
'Principles of Mechanics and Dynamics',
(formerly titled 'Treatise on Natural Philosophy'),
1962, New York: Dover, PGCp. 321
(A republication of the last revised editon of 1912.
See section 75 in vol. 1.)

Wandell, B. A.,
'Foundations of Vision',
1995, Sunderland MA: Sinauer, PGCp. 322

Westheimer, G.,
"The Fourier Theory of Vision",
2001, Perception 30, 53141, PGCp. 322
Calc48 
BF  Bessel Functions

CampbellKelly, M., M. Croaken, R. Flood, and E. Robson, editors,
'The History of Mathematical Tables',
2003, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 329, 330

Bernoulli, PGCp. 326

Bessel, PGCp. 323, 328

Dutka, J.,
"On the Early History of Bessel Functions",
1995, Archive for History of the Exact Sciences 49, 10534, PGCp. 326

Euler, Fourier, Poisson, PGCp. 327

Fricke, W.,
"Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm",
in 'Dictionary of Scientific Biography',
edited by C. C. Gillespie,
1975, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, PGCp. 323

Horsburgh, E. M.,
'Modern Instruments and Methods of Calculation: A Handbook
of the Napier Tercentenary Exhibition',
1915, London: G. Bell and Sons, PGCp. 329

LaGrange, PGCp. 328

McFarland, D. M.,
"Quarter Squares Revisited",
at
escholarship.org/uc/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 329

McLachlan, N. W.,
'Bessel Functions for Engineers', 1st edition,
1934, Oxford UK: Clarendon Press, PGCp. 328(2)

Norberg, A. L.,
"Table Making in Astronomy",
in 'The History of Mathematical Tables',
edited by M. CampbellKelly, M. Croaken, R. Flood, and
E. Robson,
2003, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 323

Pask, C.,
'Magnificent Principia: Exploring Isaac Newton's Masterpiece',
2013, Amherst MA: Prometheus Books, PGCp. 328
(See chapter 12.)

Roegel, D.,
"A Reconstruction of Blater's Table of Quarter Squares",
a 212page PDF file at
locmat.loria.fr/blater1887/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 329

Watson, G. N.,
'A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions', 2nd edition,
1944, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 325, 326, 328
(800plus pages)
Calc49 
NO  Nonlinear Oscillations

Akhmediev, N. N.,
"Deja Vu in Optics",
2001 Sep 20, Nature 413, 26768, PGCp. 340

Berman, G. P.,
"The FermiPastaUlam Problem: Fifty Years of Progress",
2005 March, CHAOS 15, 05104118, PGCp. 340

Dauxios, T.,
"Fermi, Pasta, Ulam, and a Mysterious Lady",
2008 Jan, Physics Today, 5557, PGCp. 342, 343

Fermi, e., J. Pasta, and S. Ulam,
"Studies of Nonlinear Problems",
1955 May, Los Alamos Document LA1940, PGCp. 334, 338, 339

Gallovatti, G.,
'The FermiPastaUlam Problem: A Status Report',
2008, Berlin: Springer, PGCp. 340

Kevrekidis, P. G.,
"Nonlinear Waves in Lattices: Past, Present, Future",
2011, IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics 76, 389423, PGCp. 340

Kibble, T. W. B.,
'Classical Mechanics',
1966, London: McGrawHill, PGCp. 336, 341
(See chapter 12.)

Kortweg and DeVries, PGCp. 341

Pettini, M., L. Casetti, M. caruttiSola, R. Franzosi, and
E. D. G. Cohen,
"Weak and Strong Chaos in FermiPastaUlam Models and Beyond",
2005 March, CHAOS 15, 05106113, PGCp. 340

Porter, M. A., N. J. Zabusky, Bambi Hu, and D. K. Campbell,
"Fermi, Pasta, Ulam and the Birth of Experimental Mathematics",
2009 MayJune, American Scientist 97, 21421, PGCp. 340, 341

Segre, E., editor,
'Collected Papers of Enrico Fermi', Vol. 2,
1965, Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, PGCp. 334(?)

Zabusky, PGCp. 340
Calc50 
LE  Logistic Equation
('chaos'  instability, sensitivity, divergence)

Barger, V. D., and M. G. Olsson,
'Classical Mechanics: A Modern Perspective', 2nd edition,
1995, New York: McGrawHill, PGCp. 340
(See chapter 11.)

Cvitanovic, P.,
'Universality in Chaos', 2nd edition,
1989, Bristol UK: Adam Hilger, PGCp. 349

Feigenbaum, PGCp. 349

Gleick, J.,
'Chaos: Making a New Science',
1988, London: Heinemann, PGCp. 349

Hall, N., editor,
'The New Scientist Guide to Chaos',
1991, London: Penguin, PGCp. 349
(Contains a broad range of introductory articles.)

May, R. M.,
"Simple Mathematical Models with Very Complicated Dynamics",
1976 June 10, Nature 261, 45967, PGCp. 345

Moon, F. C.,
'Chaotic Vibrations: An Introduction for Applied
Scientists and Engineers',
2004, Hoboken NJ: John Wiley, PGCp. 349

Motter, A. E., and D. K. Campbell,
"Chaos at Fifty",
2013 May, Physics Today, 2733, PGCp. 349, 350

Stewart, I.,
'Does God Play Dice? The New Mathematics of Chaos',
1990, London: Penguin Books, PGCp. 349
Chapter 12 ('Methods and Motion') 
Additional Bibliography

Tables and Computing (TC) :

Abramowitz, M., and I. A. Stegun,
'Handbook of Mathematical Functions with
Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables',
1964, Washington DC: National Bureau of Standards, PGCp. 331

Airy, PGCp. 330

Aldis, PGCp. 330

Blater, PGCp. 329

CampbellKelly, M., M. Croaken, R. Flood, and E. Robson, editors,
'The History of Mathematical Tables',
2003, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 329, 330

Croaken, M.,
"Table Making by Committee",
in 'The History of Mathematical Tables',
edited by M. CampbellKelly, M. Croaken, R. Flood, and
E. Robson,
2003, Oxford UK: Oxford U. Press, PGCp. 331

Croaken, M., and M. CampbellKelly,
"Beautiful Numbers: The Rise and Decline of the British
Association Mathematical Tables Committee, 18711965",
2000 OctDec, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing,
4461, PGCp. 331

Grier, D. A.,
'When Computers Were Human',
2005, Princeton NJ: Princeton U. Press, PGCp. 330

McFarland, D. M.,
"Quarter Squares Revisited",
at
escholarship.org/uc/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 329

McLachlan, N. W.,
'Bessel Functions for Engineers', 1st edition,
1934, Oxford UK: Clarendon Press, PGCp. 328(2)

Meissel, PGCp. 330

Rayleigh, PGCp. 330

Roegel, D.,
"A Reconstruction of Blater's Table of Quarter Squares",
a 212page PDF file at
locomat.loria.fr/blater1887/,
accessed 2017 Mar 27, PGCp. 329

Watson, G. N.,
'A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions', 2nd edition,
1944, Cambridge UK: Cambridge U. Press, PGCp. 330
(and 325, 326, 328)
(800plus pages)
